policy issues

Timeline of the Significant Feed Regulatory Changes Over the Years



The American Feed Manufacturers Association (AFMA), the American Feed Industry Association’s predecessor organization, and the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) are established.


AFMA collaborates with AAFCO on preparing a model feed law for states to use in preparing legislation.


The Southern Association of Feed Control Officials is organized and adopts uniform standards of feed analysis. The association has remained active since then managing control problems specific to the feed industry in the southeast.


The Delaney Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act is passed, setting a zero tolerance for any feed additive known to produce cancer in humans or animals. The regulations become effective in 1963.


The Miller Publishing Co., which owned Feedstuffs at the time, in cooperation with the Animal Health Institute, develops the first Feed Additive Compendium as a popular guide for the use of drugs in medicated animal feeds.


AAFCO approves the use of a uniform feed tonnage report for collecting inspection fees. Also, nine states exempt integrators from paying feed inspection fees.


The Food and Drug Administration issues the first Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) regulations for medicated feeds and starts inspecting feed mills.


AAFCO’s model feed law, with input from AFMA, is revised to incorporate federal GMPs. Also, AAFCO approves collective terms for ingredient identification in mixed feeds, grouping ingredients into seven categories, which allows feed manufacturers to more fully use least-cost formulation.


The FDA, enforcing the Delaney clause, initiated a ban on the use of diethylstilbestrol.


The FDA publishes revised GMP regulations, reducing the analytical requirements in favor of other controls.


The FDA publishes “Second Generation GMPs,” creating a new medicated feed application Form FD-1900 and establishing generic-type applications.


The FDA and AAFCO increased allowed levels of selenium supplementation from 0.1 parts per million (ppm) to 0.3 ppm.


The FDA issues guidelines on acceptable limits of aflatoxin for feeds, repealing the previous standard of 20 parts per billion (ppb).


Several states adopt new feed laws, replacing individual product registrations with facility or firm licenses.


The FDA issues new guidelines that establish the inspection priorities, protocols and GMP interpretations for medicated feed mills.


Congress approves the Animal Drug Availability Act, revising the process of approving and using animal drugs, including the veterinary feed directive (VFD) and medicated feed mill license.


The FDA publishes a final rule prohibiting the use of mammalian protein in ruminant feeds and requests comments from the industry on steps to help prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United States.


The FDA amends new animal drug regulations to implement the Animal Drug Availability Act provision for veterinary feed drugs in feeds. The agency also publishes a final rule that implements requirements for medicated feed mill licensing, in place of applications for the manufacture of each medicated feed.


The FDA approves the use of organic selenium in chicken feed. It is approved for use in turkey and swine feeds in 2002 and dairy and beef cattle feeds in 2003.


The Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act (the “Bioterrorism Act”) goes into effect, requiring domestic and foreign facilities that manufacture, process, pack or hold food for human or animal consumption in the United States to register with the FDA. The act also requires that manufacturers provide prior notice to the FDA before importing or offering to import feed ingredients into the United States, allowing the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection to more effectively target import inspections and protect the nation’s food supply from terrorism or other public health emergencies.


The FDA publishes a final rule clarifying the data that is required to gain animal drug approval for liquid and free-choice medicated feeds and that explains when liquid medicated feeds may be manufactured in a facility that has not obtained a medicated feed mill license. The agency also in 2004 establishes procedures and recordkeeping requirements for the administrative detention of food for which the FDA has credible evidence or information that it presents serious health or death threats to humans or animals under the Bioterrorism Act.


Thousands of pet deaths lead to several pet food recalls. Investigations show that wheat gluten and rice protein concentrate from China had been contaminated with the industrial chemical melamine. This, and other food safety events, led Congress to enact a specific food safety title in the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007, which established the reportable food registry and other pet food safety programs.


The FDA finalizes additional regulations, which updated the 1997 rule, to prevent the spread of BSE in the United States.


Congress enacts the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), strengthening the FDA’s administrative detention capabilities, providing the agency with mandatory recall authority and requiring rules that mandate hazard analysis and preventive controls.


The FDA issues industry guidance requesting animal drug sponsors to remove all medically important production drugs from feed use in three years and require those drugs to be used only for therapeutic purposes under a VFD.


The FDA amends the VFD Code of Federal Regulations to only allow the use of VFD drugs under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian for drugs important in human medicine that are for prevention or treatment uses in animals only.


AFIA and the National Grain and Feed Association release a hazard communication compliance guide to industry in response to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s revised Hazard Communication Standard.


The FDA publishes its final FSMA rules with an estimated price tag exceeding $1 billion for the industry. AFIA designs and conducts industry compliance trainings and conducts a scientific literature review to assist the industry with developing their hazard analysis plans.


The FDA announces new animal drug regulations that eliminate production claims for all drugs in feed that the agency has determined are important in human medicine.